Cause analysis and fire fighting methods of the ho

2022-07-23
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Fire cause analysis and fire fighting methods in gas stations

gas stations are places for storing and operating inflammable and explosive dangerous goods. They are widely distributed in urban and rural areas. Generally, there are a large number of inflammable and explosive oil products such as gasoline, ethanol gasoline and diesel oil, which have great fire risk

I. Basic information of gas stations

most gas stations are built on both sides of highways extending in all directions. Gas stations are mainly engaged in selling gasoline, diesel, ethanol gasoline and other fuel oil products. The single operation volume is small, but the operation is frequent. There are many mobile vehicles in the gas station, and the personnel come and go. If you are careless, flammable and explosive oil products and the oil gas produced during the operation may be caused by lighters, cigarette butts, electric sparks Static electricity causes fire and explosion accidents

most gas stations are equipped with fire-fighting facilities, such as dry powder fire extinguishers, sand, fire pools (towers), fire pumps, and some gas stations are also equipped with fire hydrants. Most of the oil storage tanks are underground earth covered tanks

II. Analysis of fire causes in gas stations

in addition to the generality of general fires, gas stations also have the particularity that oil is easy to burn and oil-gas mixture is easy to explode. The specific causes of fire accidents in gas stations can be divided into two categories: operational accidents and non operational accidents

(I) operation accidents

operation accidents mainly occur in the four links of oil unloading, oil measuring, refueling and oil tank. These four links expose the oil products to the air. If the operating procedures are violated during the operation, and the oil products evaporate in the air and come into contact with the fire source, explosion and combustion accidents will occur

1. Fire occurs during oil unloading

60% - 70% of fire accidents in gas stations occur during oil unloading. Common accidents include: 1) oil tank overflow. The liquid level is not monitored during oil unloading, so the overall trend of coke price is mainly stable and timely, which is easy to cause oil spilling. After the oil spills out of the tank, the concentration of oil evaporation in the surrounding air rises rapidly, reaching or exceeding the explosion limit, and then explosive combustion occurs in case of fire source; When the oil overflows, the metal container is used to scrape and scoop, the electric light is turned on for observation, and the window is opened for ventilation, which will inadvertently produce sparks and cause a fire. 2) Oil drips. As the oil unloading hose is broken, the sealing gasket is damaged, and the fastening bolt of the quick connector is loose, the oil drips to the ground and burns immediately in case of sparks. 3) Electrostatic fire. Because there is no static electricity in the oil pipe, splash oil unloading is adopted, and there is no static grounding for the oil tank truck during oil unloading, static electricity accumulates and discharges, igniting oil vapor. 4) Open fire encountered during oil unloading. In the process of unsealed oil unloading, a large amount of steam overflows from the oil unloading port. When fireworks and sparks appear around, explosive combustion will occur

2. Fire occurs when measuring oil

according to the regulations, the oil tank truck shall stand still for 1 minute after delivering oil to the station, and the cap can be opened to measure oil after the static electricity is eliminated. If the car is opened to measure the oil immediately upon arrival, it will cause static fire; If the oil tank is not equipped with an oil measuring hole or the oil hole or the aluminum (copper) groove of the oil hole falls off, when measuring the oil in the oil tank, the friction between the dipstick and the steel pipe orifice will produce sparks, which will ignite the oil vapor in the tank and cause explosive combustion; In the environment of low air pressure and no wind, wearing chemical fiber clothing, the electrostatic spark generated by friction can also ignite the oil vapor

3. Fire occurs when refuelling

at present, most domestic gas stations do not use sealed refueling technology. During refuelling, a large amount of oil vapor pours out. In addition, due to improper operation, oil spills and other reasons, a large explosion danger area has been formed near the gas station entrance. In case of fireworks, use or friction of BP machines, iron nail shoes, metal collision, electrical ignition, engine exhaust pipe fire, etc., fires can be caused

4. Fire occurs during tank cleaning

during tank cleaning in the gas station, due to the failure to completely remove the oil vapor and sediment, the residual oil vapor will cause fire when encountering static electricity, friction, electric sparks, etc

(II) non operating accidents

non operating accidents in gas stations are divided into oil related fires and non oil fires

d) according to the control method, there are open-loop control (manual control) and closed-loop control (active control) 1. The main causes of oil related fires are: 1) oil vapor precipitation. During operation, a large amount of oil vapor will flow out. As the density of oil vapor is higher than that of air, it will settle in low-lying places such as pipe trenches, cable trenches, sewers and operation wells, and accumulate in indoor corners. Once it encounters a fire source, it will explode. The oil vapor spread everywhere, connecting the gas station with the inside and outside of the operation area, leading the fire source outside the station to the station, causing serious explosion and combustion. 2) Leakage of oil tank and pipeline. Due to corrosion, manufacturing defects, unfixed flanges and other reasons, the forming temperature range is wide under non operating conditions, oil leakage, and open flame combustion. 3) Lightning strike. If the lightning directly strikes the oil tank or refueling facilities, or the lightning acts on the oil tank or refueling facilities, or the lightning acts on the oil tank, refueling machine and other places to produce indirect discharge, it will lead to oil burning fire and oil-gas mixture explosion

2. Common non oil fires include: 1) electrical fire. Fire caused by electrical aging, insulation damage, short circuit, unauthorized connection, overloaded power, overload, nonstandard connection, heating, improper use and management of electrical appliances, etc. 2) Improper open fire management, production and domestic fire out of control, ignite the fire in the station building or outside the station and spread to the station

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