The hottest German packaging waste treatment and r

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German packaging waste treatment and recycling

in order to solve the three major crises of world population, environment and resources, the world is enjoying a tide of environmental protection, resource conservation and sustainable development. Germany stands at the forefront of this world tide and took the lead in establishing the German two-way system deutscheland, also known as green dot, with green dot as the symbol. We have carried out fruitful work on waste recycling and achieved satisfactory results. This paper introduces the organization, operation and resource utilization of DSD based on the understanding of recent investigation and training in Germany

establishment and spread

on June 12, 1990, the German government issued the first packaging waste treatment regulation "packaging - packaging waste treatment decree", which aims to reduce the generation of packaging waste. The inevitable disposable packaging waste must be reused or recycled. The regulations also compel all production enterprises to be responsible not only for products, but also for the recycling of their packaging, but also for the recycling of packaging, and instruct enterprises, packaging enterprises and wholesalers engaged in transportation, agency and sales to recycle their used packaging. At the same time, they can also choose to entrust recycling to recycling companies specializing in recycling. DSD system is a company specially engaged in waste recycling established in accordance with this act. DSD's recycling scope is limited to sales packaging waste. In the composition of packaging waste used in Germany every year, sales packaging accounts for 48.4% (domestic packaging and commercial waste packaging), transportation packaging accounts for 26.8%, multi-purpose packaging accounts for 14.7%, commercial and industrial packaging accounts for 8.7%, household packaging accounts for 0.8%, and hazardous packaging accounts for 0.4%. DSD is responsible for recycling the largest proportion of waste packaging. Other packaging is recycled by other recycling organizations. For example, transportation packaging is recycled by pesy, a material recycling company, and rigk, a recycling industrial and enterprise plastic packaging Co., Ltd., metal and tinplate packaging is recycled by KBS, and building materials packaging and polyurethane foam plastic are recycled by por; The raw material recycling association VFW, located in Cologne with DSD, also recycles sales packaging and is the main competitor of green point

according to the statistics of DSD company, the total amount of solid waste (garbage) produced in Germany in a year is about 400 million tons (including industrial, construction, mining and domestic garbage), of which 40million tons of domestic garbage are produced in residential areas, and about 11.6 million tons can be recycled. German regulations stipulate that the recycling rate index of various packaging wastes ranges from 60% to 75%. Due to the excellent operation of DSD company, the recycling index of various packaging wastes in 2001 exceeded the regulations, as shown in Table 1

Table 1 actual recycling status of all kinds of packaging

recycling packaging materials regulations require that recycling was actually completed in 2001

aluminum packaging 60% 105%

composite packaging 60% 65%

Plastic packaging 60% 87%

paper packaging 70% 166%

tinplate packaging 70% 144%

glass packaging 75% 93%

the number in the table exceeded, which is the packaging that did not use the green dot mark. For example, 891723 tons of paper packaging should be recycled by participating in green dot company, while the actual recycled amount is up to tons

under the influence of Germany's legislation on compulsory recycling of packaging waste, the European community also adopted the EU packaging guidelines on December 20, 1994. The guidelines, like the German regulations, give priority to recycling. The order of packaging waste treatment is: reduction, recycling, material recycling (degradable materials are required if they can't be reused), incineration and energy reuse, landfill and composting; The packaging guidelines require all Member States to take measures to establish a recycling system for waste packaging using recycling marks. Packaging manufacturers and users must recycle the used packaging, and those who entrust a third party to recycle must pay the use fee of environmental protection recycling marks; The guidelines require that the recycling rate of packaging waste in member countries is lower than that required by German regulations. In 2001, the recycling rate reached 50%, and the recycling rate of each packaging material waste must reach at least 15%. Since then, 16 countries have adopted the green dot recycling mark in the European Union and other countries, including Austria (1993), Belgium (1994), Czech Republic (2000), France (1993), Hungary (2001), Greece (2002), Ireland (1998), Latvia (2000), Luxembourg (1995), Norway (2000), Poland (2002), Portugal (1997), Spain (1996) Sweden (2001), Canada (2001), the United States (2001)

European Union countries using the green dot mark have a worse recycling performance than Germany, mainly due to the low recycling rate of plastic packaging. Only four countries have reached the indicators specified in the EU packaging guidelines

organization and operation

dsd is a non-profit non-governmental organization composed of nearly 100 production and sales enterprises, which enjoys the tax exemption policy stipulated in the packaging regulations. The company has more than 300 employees, and the board of directors composed of three people is responsible for the specific operation, and the supervisory organization with the highest power is composed of three representatives from the packaging product enterprise, the packaging enterprise, the sales store and the waste management department. In addition, the Advisory Committee is formed by political circles, business circles, scientific research institutions and consumer organizations to coordinate the work of the company as the media between DSD and various social groups

the recycling system of DSD recycling company in the country depends on its signing contracts with more than 500 private and waste management companies, which is a model that is not limited by regional economy; At the same time, as a non-governmental organization engaged in public interest services, DSD company coordinates the interests of local governments, waste management departments and recycling companies in the form of fee based operation under the premise of national environmental policy requirements, clarifies the responsibilities and rights of all parties, and enables the recycling work to be carried out smoothly

DSD company issues and charges the "green dot" sign for the packaging enterprises and importers that entrust them to recycle packaging waste. The charging standard is calculated by weight, volume and area according to different types of recycled waste packages

calculated by weight: 150.8 cents per kilogram of plastic packaging; 107.3 cents per kilogram of composite packaging; Charge 86.4 cents per kilogram of beverage carton; 76.6 cents per kilogram of aluminum packaging; 28.6 cents per kilogram of tin cans; 20.4 cents per kilogram of paper/cardboard packaging; 10.2 cents per kilogram of natural packaging materials; The charge is 7.6 cents per kilogram of glass packaging

since January 2002, the above charging standard has decreased by 11%

calculated by volume: <50 to 200ml, charge 0 31 cents; > 200ml to 3l, charge 0 46 cents; > 3l, 0.61 cents

calculated by area: <150 square centimeters to 300 square centimeters, charge 0 20 cents; > From 300 square centimeters to 1600 square centimeters, the charge is 0.31 cents; > 1600 square centimeters, scrap fee 0.46 cents

packaging enterprises, importers and trading companies can use the "green dot" sign registered with DSD company after filling in the form and paying. By 2000, DSD company had 17900 enterprises using its "green dot" sign, recycled 340 million tons of packaging waste, and recycled and treated it

dsd's recycling logo is only used on disposable sales packages, and reusable packages, such as beer bottles, do not use the "green dot" logo, but are recycled by paying a "deposit". DSD company recycles the packaging waste with the "green dot" logo through the "send" and "take" systems. For a large amount of glass (separated by green, white and brown), paper and paperboard waste and corner waste, the company uses the "delivery" system, uses garbage cans and bags for centralized packaging, and sends vehicles to recycling processing enterprises for recycling; For scattered packaging waste, the company will set up garbage collection bins (buckets) near residential areas and pedestrian roads. Garbage bins (buckets) can be large, medium and small, which can be selected according to needs; Garbage cans (cans) are also divided into different colors. Waste is collected by classification. Blue garbage cans (cans) collect cartons and cartons, yellow garbage cans (cans) collect all kinds of waste light packaging, such as plastic, composite, 1-way speed range narrow tin cans, cans and other waste packaging, and gray or brown garbage cans (cans) collect other sundries

the average recyclable waste collected by green dot from each resident in 2001 was 76.6kg, including 30.0kg glass packaging, 27.91kg light packaging, and 18.7kg paper/paperboard packaging

dsd two-way system's operation instructions for recycling packaging waste: its application cycle is: packaging product manufacturer → selling packaging to production enterprises for packaging or filling, The production enterprise shall pay the green dot fee to the two-way system → the disposable packaged products of the production enterprise can be printed with the green dot logo → delivered to the store for sale → consumer consumption → the waste packaging after consumption is recycled by the garbage collection box made by the green dot company with its investment → the waste is classified and collected by the green dot company or its contracted recycler, and then transported to the recycling plant → production of recycled raw materials (or made into other products) → return to the packaging product manufacturer, Produce recycled products

(the two-way arrow indicates that there is a contract agreement with each other, and the one-way black arrow indicates that the funds generated by the green dot license fee are unemployed.)

separation and regeneration

1 Waste paper

among the waste paper in Germany, 75% are newspapers and magazines, and 25% are paper and paperboard. In 1999, 214.6kg/person · year was recovered, which has a good economic value of recovery. After being recycled through the "sending" and "taking" systems, it used to be used for pallets, but now it has adopted a fully automatic waste paper sorting line for sorting. After the waste paper is shredded, it is separated by weight (specific gravity), which can ensure the quality of recycled pulp after being sent to the paper mill. If waste newspapers and magazines are mixed with 5% paper/paperboard, the quality of high-grade pulp will be seriously affected. Therefore, Germany has high requirements for sorting quality, and stipulates that the mixed paper shall not exceed 1.25%

2. Waste composite packaging

beverage paperboard packaging is mostly made of aluminum-plastic paper composite materials, 80% of which is paper-based, 16% is PE plastic, and 4% is aluminum foil. Germany recycles 130000 tons of composite packaging every year

the recycling and separation procedures are as follows:

(1) after tearing the waste composite packaging, the waste composite packaging can be separated into fiber pulp by using the characteristics of water absorption of paper. After squeezing the fiber pulp into large packages, it is transported to the paper mills in Finland and Germany for papermaking. Due to the long fiber and good quality of food packaging paperboard, it is welcomed by the paper mills

(2) after tearing and breaking and separating the paper, the remaining aluminum foil (aluminum oxide) and PE are not easy to be separated, so most (75%) are sent to the cement plant as the additive aluminum oxide for cement production; A few (25%) can also be pyrolyzed. After burning plastic PE (which can be used as a heat source), aluminum oxide is left with the problems of low industry concentration

3. Waste plastic packaging

the use of plastics in Germany is: PE accounts for 61%, PP for 18%, pet for 9%, PVC for 4%, EPS for 2%. Its waste plastic packaging consists of 11% plastic bottles, 23% plastic films, 2% EPS and 64% mixed plastics

except that pet is easy to recycle, other plastics are difficult to recycle, and after recycling, they do not have a good market like other recycled materials. The German Ministry of environmental protection first asked the chemical plant to undertake the task of plastic recycling, but the plastic plant was willing to undertake it because it was too troublesome and did not replace the chaotic internal wiring in consideration of economic benefits. I only hope

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